Tembang dhandhanggula adalah tembang macapat yang berisikan tentang cita – cita, harapan, angan – angan, dan kebahagiaan pada masyarakat jawa pada zaman dulu. Istilah tembang dhandhanggula yaitu berasal dari kata “gegadhangan” yang artinya harapan, cita – cita, atau angan – angan dan dari kata “gula” yang berarti manis atau bahagia.

Istilah lain dari tembang dhandhanggula juga berasal dari kata “dhandhang” yang artinya burung gagak yang dilambangkan sebagai lambang duka, serta dari kata “gula” yang berarti manis. Dapat disimpulkan pula bahwa tembang dhandhanggula merupakan suka duka perjalanan hidup dalam mencapai kebahagiaan.

Watak Tembang Dhandhanggula

Watak tembang dhandhanggula yaitu bersifat menyeluruh, luwes atau bersifat apa saja yang dapat merasuk kedalam hati. Oleh karena itu, tembang macapat dhandhanggula ini dapat digunakan dalam situasi apapun dan dalam berbagai macam kondisi.

Gambaran atau inti dari watak tembang dhandhanggula adalah selalu bersyukur dan menikmati apa yang telah Tuhan berikan kepada kita. Maka cita – cita atau angan – angan untuk mencapai kebahagiakan itu akan terwujud.

Aturan Tembang Dhandhanggula

  1. Memiliki Guru Gatra (baris atau larik) = 10 larik atau baris tiap bait.
    Artinya : Tembang dhandhanggula ini memiliki 10 baris atau larik pada setiap bait.
  2. Memiliki Guru Wilangan (jumlah suku kata) = 10, 10, 8, 7, 9, 7, 6, 8, 12, 7. Artinya : Pada baris pertama tembang dhandhanggula berjumlah 10 suku kata, baris kedua 10 suku kata, baris ketiga 8 suku kata, dan seterusnya.
  1. Memiliki Guru Lagu (huruf atau vokal) = i, a, e, u, i, a, u, a, i, a. Artinya : Pada baris pertama tembang dhandhanggula berakhir dengan huruf atau vokal i, baris kedua berakhir dengan huruf a, dan seterusnya

Tembang Macapat iku ana 11 yaiku :

  1. Maskumambang
  2. Mijil
  3. Sinom
  4. Kinanthi
  5. Asmarandana
  6. Gambuh
  7. Dandhanggula
  8. Durma
  9. Pangkur
  10. Megatruh
  11. Pocung

Tembang macapat iku duweni paugeran utawi pathokan :

  1. Guru gatra yaiku cacahing larik utawi baris saben sapada.
  2. Guru wilangan yaiku cacahing wanda ( kecap utawi suku kata ) saben sagatra.
  3. Guru lagu utawi dhong dhing yaiku tibaning swara ing pungkasaning gatra.

Tembang Dhandhanggula iku kalebu salah sijine tembang macapat. Wondene paugeran utawi pathokan tembang dhandhanggula yaiku :

  1. Guru gatra : ana 10 larik/baris
  2. Guru wilangan : 10,10,8,7,9,7,6,8,12,7
  3. Guru lagu : i,a,e,u,i,a,u,a,i,a
  4. Watake tembang dhandhanggula  yaiku luwes,kepranan,ngresepake.

Serat Wulangreh Dhandhanggula

Anggitanipun Kanjeng Sri Susuhunan Pakubuwana IV.

( Pada 01)

Pamedare wasitaning ati, cumanthaka aniru Pujangga, dhahat mudha ing batine, nanging kedah ginunggung, datan wruh yen keh ngesemi, ameksa angrumpaka, basa kang kalantur, turur kang katula-tula, tinalaten rinuruh kalawan ririh, mrih padhanging sasmita.

Terjemahan bebas mawa basa jawa:

Nasehat utawa petuah iki kawiwitan saka niat niru kaya dene pujangga kang wis kawentar (terkenal), ing mangka aku dhewe ora ngerti apa-apa/ bodho, ananging iku kabeh dilakoni amarga penging dialem dening wong liya. Ora ngertia, ing tembe mburi akeh kang padha maido/ngundhat-ngundhat amarga kabeh iku dumadi jalaran meksa awake dhewe (memaksakan diri) kang sejatine durung kuwat nglakoni, mulane anggone ngripta,nasehat mau kanthi basa kang ora becik. Kabeh iku mau kagae kanthi rasa sabar saengga dadi nasehat kang cetha.

Terjemahan bebas mawa Bahasa Indonesia :

Uraian nasihat ini bermula dari kelancangan hati berniat meniru para pujangga, padahal (aku) sangatlah bodoh. Tetapi karena ingin disanjung, tidak tahu jika kelak banyak yang mencibir. Memaksakan diri untuk menciptakan, (meski) dengan bahasa yang kacau balau bahkan tersia-sia, namun (hal ini) kususun dengan teliti dan sabar, semoga isyarat ini menjadi jelas.

Tegese Tembung :

  1. Pamedhare : wedhar, wetu; lair; blaka,kawetune, kelaire (ungkapan)
  2. Wasita : pitutur,wewarah,kandha
  3. Dhahat : banget
  4. Cumanthaka : kurang duga,kumawani
  5. Ginunggung : dibombong,dialem
  6. Ngesemi : nyepelekke, nyemoni, ngece
  7. Angrumpaka : nggawe, ngrakit, ngarang
  8. Tutur : omong, kandha, wewarah, nasihat
  9. Ririh : lirih, alon
  10. Sasmita : lambang, tandha, isyarat

( Pada 02 )

Sasmitaning ngaurip puniki, apan ewuh yen nora weruha, tan jumeneng ing uripe, akeh kang ngaku-aku, pangrasane sampun udani, tur durung wruh ing rasa, rasa kang satuhu, rasaning rasa punika, upayanen darapon sampurna ugi, ing kauripanira.

Terjemahan bebas mawa basa jawa

Tandha utawa pralambanging urip/ajaran nora bias dipahami yen sliramu ora ngerti pralambang/ajaran mau. Wong kang kaya mangkono, urip lan batine ora tentrem. Akeh wong padhang aku-aku yen wis padha dong, mandheg pralambang/ajaran iku mau, nanging sejatine durung dhong amarga durung nduweni rasa pangrasa kang sejati. Mulane dadi wong supaya mangerteni nilai rasa pangrasakang sejati supaya sampurna uripe.

Terjemahan bebas mawa Bahasa Indonesia :

Isyarat dalam kehidupan ini, tidak mungkin kau pahami jika kau tak mengetahuinya, tidak akan memiliki ketenangan dalam hidupnya. Banyak yang mengaku dirinya sudah memahami isyarat (dalam hidup), padahal belum mengolah rasa, inti dari rasa yang sesunguhnya. Oleh karena itu, berusahalah (memahami makna rasa itu), agar sempurna hidupmu.

Tegese Tembung :

  1. Apan : awit,arep,bakal
  2. Ewuh : angel,repot
  3. Tan : tanpa,ora
  4. Jumeneng : ngadeg,madeg
  5. Udani : weruh,ngerti
  6. Satuhu : nyata,tenan,tenan
  7. Upayanen : nggoleka,mbudidaya
  8. Darapon : supaya
  9. Kauripanira : uripmu,panguripanmu

Wangsulana pitakon ing ngisor iki :

  1. Apa tegese tembung-tembung ing ngisor iki :
  • Wasita
  • Ginunggung
  • Ewuh
  • Jumeneng
  • Satuhu
  1. Serat Wulangreh iku anggitane sapa?
  2. Tembang macapat dhandhanggula iku ana pirang gatra?
  3. Tulisen guru wilangan lan guru lagune tembang dhandhanggula!
  4. Kepriye watake tembang dhandhanggula?
51 thoughts on “Tembang Macapat “Dhandhanggula””
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